Dr. Varshali Mali, MBBS, DNB - Obstetrician and Gynecologist

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Permanent contraception by vasectomy and tubal ligation sterilization

Permanent contraception by vasectomy and tubal ligation sterilization

Methods | Procedure | Pros & Cons

By

MBBS, DNB (OBGY)

Gynecologist & Pregnancy Doctor

Permanent contraception by vasectomy and tubal ligation sterilization
Male and female sterilization methods are permanent contraception methods which are very effective to avoid pregnancy. These permanent contraception methods are suitable for those who are sure they never want children or don't want any more. Reversal of these methods is very difficult, very costly and many times impossible to do. So, before you decide on any sterilization methods, you should consult the gynecologist. She might be able to help you decide which method to go for and based on your requirement suggest alternative long-acting reversible contraception methods.
There are many sterilization methods, all of them work by blocking the fallopian tubes or vas defrance. When the sperms cannot meet the egg, fertilization and hence pregnancy cannot happen. Sterilization procedure is available for both men and women. For women, it is often called "getting your tubes tied" or "tubal ligation". For men, these sterilization methods are called a vasectomy. Both of these contraception methods are more than 99% effective to prevent pregnancy. The decision about tubal ligation for her or vasectomy for him depends on many factors. Talk to your partner, parents, and doctor about it. Consider the social, emotional and physical impact of these procedures. While deciding any sterilization methods, consider the cost, reversibility and recovery time.
In this article, we will discuss details about vasectomy and tubal ligation sterilization methods, their benefits, and how to avoid pregnancy effectively using these permanent contraception methods.
Vasectomy or male sterilization contraception methods

Vasectomy or male sterilization contraception method

Vasectomy or male sterilization contraception method type
Type
Permanent contraception methods
Effectiveness of vasectomy or male sterilization contraception method
Effectiveness
99%
Vasectomy or male sterilization contraception method frequency of use
Frequency of use
Lasts for life
STD protection status by vasectomy or male sterilization contraception method

Protection against STDs

No
Vasectomy or male sterilization contraception methods
Male sterilization is one of the permanent contraception methods and commonly referred as vasectomy. It is a surgical procedure in which the small tubes in scrotum (a sack of skin, divided into 2 parts, that holds the testicles) that carry sperm are cut or blocked off. The vasectomy procedure is very simple and usually completed in about 30 minutes at the hospital.
Vasectomy sterilization method avoids pregnancy by blocking the sperms from getting to the egg. The sperms are made in men's testicles (balls), leaves the testicles and travel through two tubes called the vas deferens. The sperms then mix with other fluid to make semen. When the semen containing sperm gets into a vagina, it causes the pregnancy. In vasectomy sterilization methods, the doctor will block or cut each vas deferens tube. This keeps the sperms out of semen. After a vasectomy, there is no sperm in your semen. Your testicles will still make the sperms, but they will not mix with semen and will be absorbed by your body. You will still have erections and ejaculate (cum) but the semen will not contain any sperm, so a woman's egg cannot be fertilized, and pregnancy cannot happen.
Vasectomy is one of the permanent contraception methods and super effective to avoid pregnancy. It is over 99% effective and it is very rare to cause pregnancy after vasectomy sterilization. After a vasectomy, it will take about 3 months for semen to become sperm-free. About 12 weeks after the procedure, the doctor will ask you to get a semen test done. If semen is sperm free, that's pretty much it, you don't have to do anything else and need not think more about how to avoid pregnancy. If you have a sex during these three months, you cannot rely only on vasectomy, you must use some other contraception methods to avoid pregnancy during this period.
There are two ways the vasectomy procedure performed, the incision method and the no-scalpel or no-cut method. In both these sterilization procedures, you'll get local anesthesia to numb your testicles, so you shouldn't feel much during the procedure. In the incision method, the doctor will make a small cut on the skin of your scrotum. Through this small cut, the tubes carrying sperms are blocked off. The tube may be tied, blocked with surgical clips, or closed with an electrical current. Sometimes a tiny part of each tube is removed. In the no-scalpel method, the doctor will make one tiny puncture (hole) on the skin of your scrotum. The tubes are then tied off, sealed, or blocked. The small puncture heals quickly. You won't need stitches, and there's no scarring.
Vasectomy sterilization is a quick medical procedure and you can go home right after the procedure. You may feel discomfort or pain, but it should not be very terrible. You may also have some bruising and/or swelling for a few days. Taking pain relief and wearing tight-fitting underpants or athletic support, will help you to reduce any discomfort. It is advised not to do any heavy physical work or exercise for a week after vasectomy. It's very rare that you will get an infection. Consult the doctor if you have any symptoms like high fever, blood or pus coming from where the cut was made, or a lot of pain or swelling in your scrotum or testicle area. Most of the men need a rest for only a couple of days. If your job is physically demanding, it is advised to take a week off from the work. You can also start having a sex after a couple of days, but for the initial 3 months, remember to use some other contraception methods to avoid pregnancy. Also, remember that vasectomy sterilization does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. You always need to use other contraception methods like condoms to avoid STDs.
Advantages
If you want to have a permanent solution for how to avoid pregnancy question, vasectomy is the best answer. Vasectomy sterilization is one of the permanent contraception methods and most effective to prevent pregnancy. Its more than 99% effective to avoid pregnancy and does not need any attention before, during and after the sex. It avoids pregnancy 24x7 and does not interrupt the sex. Noting to buy from the medical store, no reminders, nothing to put in place before or during sex. Vasectomy is one of the "get-it-and-forget-it" contraception methods. Like the hormonal contraception methods, vasectomy sterilization does not release any hormones in your body does not have any hormone-related side effects. Vasectomy may be a simpler, safer and more reliable alternative to female sterilization.
Disadvantages
Vasectomy sterilization is one of the permanent contraception methods and your fertility may never come back. If you ever want to be a father again, the reversal procedure is very complicated and expensive. So, you should only get a vasectomy if you're totally certain that you don't want to get someone pregnant for the rest of your life. Vasectomy sterilization takes about 12 weeks to 3 months to become effective. During this period, you need to use other contraception methods to avoid pregnancy. Sometimes, the vasectomy procedure may cause an infection, but it usually minor and treatable with antibiotics. You may feel some pain, bleeding, bruising or swelling after the procedure. All this should go away within a few weeks, if not please consult the doctor. Vasectomy contraception method does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. You always need to use other contraception methods like condoms to avoid STDs.
Female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method

Female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method

Female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method type
Type
Permanent contraception methods
Effectiveness of female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method
Effectiveness
99%
Female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method frequency of use
Frequency of use
Lasts for life
STD protection status by female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method

Protection against STDs

No
Female sterilization or tubal ligation contraception method
Female sterilization is one of the permanent contraception methods and referred to as tubal ligation. Tubal ligation is a surgical procedure in which fallopian tubes are cut, tied or blocked permanently to avoid pregnancy. The tubal ligation is also known as "getting your tubes tied," and amount married couples, it is the most popular answer for how to avoid pregnancy question.
Every month, the ovaries release an egg (ovulation). The fallopian tube carries this egg from ovaries to the womb. The egg waits for few days for sperms to come and fertilize the egg in the fallopian tube. Pregnancy happens if a sperm cell meets up with one of your eggs and the fertilized egg implants in your uterus. Tubal ligation female sterilization blocks your fallopian tube carrying this egg from ovaries to the womb. Once the tube is blocked, sperms can't get to the egg and pregnancy can't happen.
There are several female sterilization methods. Tubal ligation procedure involves, either cutting, removing a small piece of tube, sealing or applying clip or ring to block the fallopian tube. In the incision female sterilization method, a small cut on your belly is done to reach to the fallopian tube. Laparoscopy and mini-laparotomy are the two main incision sterilization methods. A non-incision sterilization is done through vagina and cervix. During non-incision sterilization, the doctor puts a tiny coil into each of your fallopian tubes. Over time, your body naturally grows tissue around the coils and blocks off your fallopian tube. Recovery from the non-incision sterilization method is the fastest and most women can return to their regular work on the same day. If the sterilization is done using one of the incision methods, it takes about 2-3 days to recover. It's a good idea to take a week off from work and avoid lifting anything heavy.
Tubal ligation is one of the permanent contraction methods. It is more than 99% effective to avoid pregnancy, it means only fewer than 1 out of 100 women who are sterilized will get pregnant each year. The female sterilization methods are so effective because it does not need any attention, before, during or after the sex. It protects from pregnancy round the clock, 24x7. There is no way you can forget about it. It is one of the "get-it-and-forget-it" contraception methods. The incision tubal ligation procedure starts to avoid pregnancy right away. The non-incision sterilization method takes about 3 months to start preventing pregnancy, so use some other contraception methods during this period to avoid pregnancy. The doctor will conduct some test to make sure that it worked and will give you a green single for unprotected sex. Tubal ligation contraception method does not protect you from sexually transmitted diseases. You always need to use other contraception methods like condoms to avoid STDs.
Tubal ligation or female sterilization is a safe medical procedure. It's very rare to have any serious problems after sterilization. Consult the doctor immediately if you get a rash, swelling or have trouble breathing, have a fever, have severe and continuous pain in your belly, have unusual discharge or odor from your vagina, have fainting spells, have bleeding or pus where the incision (cut) was made. After sterilization, it very rare than fallopian tubes can reconnect or become unblocked and you get pregnant. If you get pregnant after sterilization, the pregnancy could develop in your fallopian tube which is called ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancies are dangerous, so pregnancy after sterilization should be reported to the doctor immediately. Female sterilization procedure is permanent and almost impossible to reverse. In some cases, it can be reversed, but if the reversal works or not depends on many things like when the procedure was done, how it healed, and the type sterilization methods used. So, before you decide on tubal ligation, think about any possible life changes that could affect you in the future and you might want to get pregnant. Also consider that there are other super-effective, long-acting and reversible contraception methods available. They can be very easily reversed, and you will be ready to get pregnant quickly.
Advantages
Female sterilization or tubal ligation is one of the permanent contraception methods and most effective to prevent pregnancy. Its more than 99% effective to avoid pregnancy and does not need any attention before, during and after the sex. Tubal ligation avoids pregnancy 24x7 and does not interrupt the sex. It is one of those "get-it-and-forget-it" contraception methods. Tubal ligation is a hormone-free contraception method and can be used safely in case if you have some medical conditions and cannot use hormonal contraception methods.
Disadvantages
Female sterilization or tubal ligation one of the permanent contraception methods and your fertility may never come back. If you ever want to get pregnant, the reversal procedure is very complicated and expensive. So, you should get a tubal ligation only if you're totally certain that you never want to get pregnant. If you are looking for a long-acting answer for how to avoid pregnancy, there are other very effective reversal contraception methods which once done, does not need your attention. One of the long-acting and reversible contraception methods like IUD might be suitable for you. Talk to your doctor about your contraception requirement, she will able to guide you about sterilization and other contraception methods. Sometimes, the female sterilization procedure may cause an infection, but it usually minor and treatable with antibiotics. All the minor side effects should go away within a few weeks, if not, please consult the doctor. Tubal ligation contraception method does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. You always need to use other contraception methods like condoms to avoid STDs.
Sterilization is a very effective, permanent answer for how to avoid pregnancy question. Out of male and female sterilization methods, many married couples rely on female sterilization as contraception methods to prevent pregnancy. These sterilization methods are more than 99% effective to avoid pregnancy. The main reason for such reliability is that it does not need your attention. Once a vasectomy or tubal ligation procedure is done, you need not think about "how to avoid pregnancy" at all. This is "get-it-and-forget-it" contraception methods.
All sterilization methods work by blocking the fallopian tubes. In female fallopian tubes carry eggs from ovaries to the womb and male vas deference carry sperms to mix and form semen. In sterilization contraception methods, these tubes cut, tied off, sealed, or blocked. As there is no passage for eggs and sperms to meet, the pregnancy cannot happen. These sterilization methods are permanent. If you ever want to reverse them, it is very difficult, expensive, and complicated medical procedure. If you are looking for the contraception methods which does not need your attention, which are long-acting, which does not interrupt sex, you can have a look at other long-acting reversible contraception methods. They are very easy to reverse in case if you ever want to have a child.
Sterilization is a major decision. The sterilization decision means that a couple has decided not to have a child in the future together. And that's really a major decision. So, you need to give a deep thought about it. Talk to your partner, parents, and other important family members. Although both men and women can make their own decisions about the procedure, it's a good idea to consult the people who have a concern for you. In the end, a woman's or men's decision to undergo sterilization must be his or her own choice and not forced on by a family, partner, or healthcare provider. It is also advised to consult the doctor before you come to a final decision. The doctor will understand your conception, family planning, and other social requirements and will able to guide you about what you can do to avoid unplanned pregnancy.
Dr. Varshali Mali (MBBS, DNB). Gynecologist & Pregnancy Doctor

About Author

Dr. Varshali Mali is an Obstetrician and Gynecologist. She did her MBBS from Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Pune, and DNB (Obstetrics & Gynecology) from Jehangir Hospital, Pune. She has a number of years of experience working as a gynecologist, pregnancy doctor, and lecturer. Currently, through her clinic located at Life Republic township near Marunji, she provides gynecology and pregnancy care solutions to the women around Hinjewadi, Wakad and nearby area in Pune. In her patient community, she is known for her welcome nature, smiley face, supportive attitude, intelligence and in-depth knowledge about gynecology and pregnancy. Mother of two daughters, she believes that motherhood is the best gift one can get. As her contribution, she puts her best efforts to make the pregnancy journey most enjoyable for her patients.

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Have a question about the sterilization contraception methods? Want to know about the vasectomy or tubal ligation procedure? Ask it to the experienced Gynecologist & Pregnancy doctor. Get the quick answers.

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Confused about if you should go for permanent contraception or choose other contraception methods? Want to talk to a doctor before you take a decision about a vasectomy or tubal ligation sterilization procedure? Consult Dr. Varshali Mali, an experienced female Gynecologist & Pregnancy doctor.
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